Category Archives: Auto

All You Need To Know About Powder Coating

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Powder coating is a coating that is applied to objects much like your common household paint, but unlike paint, powder coating does not contain a liquid filler that needs time to evaporate. Instead, after a powder coating is applied, it is heat cured until it forms a “skin”. The powder is made up of either a thermoplastic or thermoset polymer. Using the powder coating method results in a much tougher surface than conventional painting does. And much like paint, a powder coating may be applied to a variety of surfaces, such as metals, automobile and bicycle parts, drum hardware, and household appliances.

There are advantages in using the powder coating method as compared to painting. Since there is no liquid carrier in powder coating to evaporate, powder coating produces much fewer volatile organic compounds than painting does, and with the absence of a liquid carrier, several coats of powder coating can be applied to a surface without running. Another advantage when using powder coating is that many different colors may be applied before being heat cured, which results in eye catching color blending and bleeding. Powder coating is also surprisingly cost effective because the cost of a powder coat gun, booth and oven is comparable to the cost of a typical spray gun system. However, unlike spray paint systems, any over-spray from the powder coating process can be recycled.

Powder coating contains different polymers, including polyester, epoxy, polyester-epoxy, polyurethane and acrylics. To produce the powder in powder coating requires a three step process. In a mixer, granules of polymer, pigments, hardeners and other powder type ingredients are mixed well. The resulting mixture is then well heated in an extruder. Then the mixture is rolled out flat to allow it to cool. When cooled, the mixture is then broken up into chips. Finally, the chips are run through a grinder, resulting in a very fine powder.

The powder coating process consists of preparation, powder application and curing. Before the coating can be applied, dirt, oil, grease, welding scale and metal oxides must be removed. This can be done by mechanical or chemical methods, depending on what material the part consists of and the size of the part to be coated. The chemical process entails immersing the part into a chemical bath containing phosphates and chromates. Another method to prepare the surface is to use an abrasive process known as sandblasting.

Applying the coating is commonly accomplished by spraying, using an electrostatic gun. The job of the gun is to produce a positive electric charge to the powder, which in turn will easily stick to the object being coated. An alternative method is called the fluidized bed method, which is done by heating the object and then dipping it into a powder filled bed, thus allowing the powder to melt and stick to the heated object.

The curing process uses heat, which in turn, causes the powder to melt and causes a chemical reaction resulting in a durable polymer bond.


Brief History of the 22RE Engine

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toyota 22reToyota has a long standing reputation for the durability of their engines. The Toyota 22RE was one of the final engines from the long history of Toyota R family engines. This 4 cylinder 2.4 liter engine made by Toyota is yet another great engine that is made to last.

The Toyota 22RE was first introduced to the public in 1982 and was a cast iron engine. 1985 brought about some big changes for the 22RE; the block was taller and the head was shorter than the previous model. The 22RE is the fuel-injected version of the 22R and originally produced 105 horsepower at 4,800 rpm.

The Celica was the first Toyota vehicle to use the 22RE (learn more here:, but were discontinued in 1985. It was also used in the Toyota pick-up trucks and the 4Runner until 1995. In addition to the Celica, pickups and 4Runner, the 22RE engine was also put into the Toyota Hilux, and Toyota Corona and even used in the Volkswagen Taro (until 1997). Over the next decade modifications were made and could reach a maximum torque of 137 at 2,800. By 1995 the horsepower increased slightly to 112 at 4,600 rpm with the maximum torque being rated to 142 at 3,400 rpm.

Overview of the 22RE

The 22RE is an OverHead Cam (OHC) design that has a hemispherical combustion chambers. It is was manufactured as a 4 cylinder engine with one intake and one exhaust per cylinder valve, a total of eight valves. The valve train on the 22RE uses a push rod setup with the camshaft in the block. It also offered soft piston rings that allow the cylinder bores to avoid ridges throughout the duration of the engine’s life and increased its longevity. While it is not quite as effective as a Twin Cam, which offers a two or four valves per, it is extremely efficient.

This engine offers quite a bit of torque at a reasonable RPM because of the long stroke. In later versions of the 22RE, the shorter head model, had keyhole shaped exhaust ports. With that being said, the 22RE is a great dependable and durable engine, but does not offer much get up and go.

Even though the 22RE was discontinued after 1997 it has been reported that these engines are still going strong with usually having the ability to go 300K-400K miles. There have even been a few reports of the Toyota 22RE reaching 1 million miles. The most important thing to remember with the 22RE is to make sure timing chain in changed every 150,000 miles due to the fact that it will get loose and eventually wear through the back of the water pump housing. What the Toyota 22RE engine lacks in power it makes up for it in reliability and longevity.